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Related Publications

In addition to the publications listed below, there is also available a video film, 'Biotechnology: Whose Technology, Whose Ethics?


  • Carr, S. ed. (2002) ‘Innovation Strategies in the European Agricultural Life Sciences’, special issue of Science and Public Policy, August, 29(4): 241-312
  • Carr, S. (2002). Ethical and value-based aspects of the European Commission_s precautionary principle. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15: 31-38.
  • Carr, S. and Levidow, L. (2000). Exploring the links between science, risk, uncertainty and ethics in crop biotechnology regulation. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12: 29-39.
  • Carr S, Levidow L & Wield D, (1998) 'Fausses notes dans le concert réglementaire', BioFutur, November 1997, 172: 26-28; updated/reprinted in Plantes transgéniques: les graines de la discorde, pp.129-33, Paris: Elsevier.
  • Carr S, Levidow L, (1997) 'How biotechnology regulation separates ethics from risk', Outlook on Agriculture 26(3): 145-50.


  • Levidow, L. (2003) 'Precautionary risk assessment of Bt maize: what uncertainties?', Journal of Insect Pathology 83(2): 113-17.
  • Levidow, L. (2003) 'La démocratie biotechnologisée en Europe', Ecologie Politique 27: 147-60.
  • Levidow, L. and Murphy, J. (2003) 'Reframing regulatory science: trans-Atlantic conflicts over GM crops', Cahiers d'économie et sociologie rurales 68/69: 47-74.
  • Levidow, L. and Bijman, J. (2002) 'Farm inputs under pressure from the European food industry', Food Policy 27(1): 31-45.
  • Levidow, L., Oreszczyn, S., Assouline, G. and Joly, P-B. (2002) 'Industry responses to the European controversy over agricultural biotechnology', Science and Public Policy 29(4): 267-75.
  • Levidow, L., Søgaard, V. and Carr, S. (2002) 'Agricultural PSREs in Western Europe: research priorities in conflict', Science and Public Policy 29(4): 287-95.
  • Levidow L (March 2002), ‘Ignorance-based risk assessment? Scientific controversy over GM food safety’, Science as Culture, 11(1): 61-67.
  • Levidow L (April 2001) 'Utilitarian bioethics? Market fetishism in the GM crops debate', New Genetics & Society, 20(1): 75-84.
  • Levidow L & Marris C (October 2001) 'Science and Governance in Europe: lessons from the case of agbiotech', Science and Public Policy 28(5): 345-60.
  • L.Levidow (2001) 'Precautionary uncertainty: regulating GM crops in Europe', Social Studies of Science 31(6): 845-78.
  • Levidow L & Carr S, (Winter 2000) 'Normalizing novelty: regulating biotechnological risk at the US EPA', Risk -- Health, Safety and Environment, 11(1): 61-86.
  • Levidow L & Carr S, eds, (July 2000) 'Precautionary Regulation: GM Crops in the European Union', special issue of the Journal of Risk Research,, 3(3): 187-285; includes Levidow, Carr & Wield, 'Genetically modified crops in the European Union: regulatory conflicts as precautionary opportunities', JRR 3(3): 189-208; and 'UK: precautionary commercialization?', JRR 3(3): 261-270
  • Levidow L, (September 2000) 'Pollution metaphors in the UK biotechnology controversy', Science as Culture, 9(3): 325-51
  • Levidow L, Carr S & Wield D, (1999) 'Market-stage precautions: managing regulatory disharmonies for transgenic crops in Europe’,
    AgBiotechNet, 1: 1-8.
  • Levidow L, (1999) 'Britain's biotechnology controversy: elusive science, contested expertise', New Genetics & Society, 18(1): 47-64.
  • Levidow L, Carr S & Wield D, (1999) 'Regulating biotechnological risk, straining Britain's consultative style', Journal of Risk Research, 2(4): 307-24
  • Levidow L, (December 1999) 'Regulating Bt maize in the USA and Europe: a scientific-cultural comparison', Environment, 41(10): 10-22; short version, 'OGM: quand la Culture façonne les lois’, BioFutur, May 2000, 200: 42-47.
  • Levidow L, (1998) 'Democratizing technology -- or technologizing democracy? Regulating agricultural biotechnology in Europe', Technology in Society, 20(2): 211-26; also in von Schomberg R, ed. (September 1999) Democratising Technology: Theory and Practice of a Deliberative Technology Policy, pp.51-70, (Hengelo: ICHPA, morales@skynet.be); short version, 'La démocratie "biotechnologisée"?', BioFutur, :192: 33-35
  • Levidow L, Carr S, von Schomberg R & Wield D, (1997), 'European biotechnology regulation: framing the risk assessment of a herbicide-tolerant crop', Science, Technology and Human Values, 22(4): 472-505.
  • Levidow L, Carr S, (1997),'How biotechnology regulation sets a risk/ethics boundary', Agriculture and Human Values, 14(1): 29-43
  • Levidow L, Carr S & Wield D, (1997) 'Environmental risk disharmonies of European biotechnology regulation', AgBiotech News & Information, 9(8): 179N-183N,
  • Levidow L, (May 1996) 'Regulating GMO releases: Britain's precautionary dilemmas', Natures-Sciences-Sociétés Dialogues, 4(2): 131-43, Paris: NSS Association.
  • Levidow L, S.Carr, von Schomberg R & Wield D, (June 1996) 'Regulating agricultural biotechnology in Europe: harmonization difficulties, opportunities, dilemmas', Science & Public Policy, 23 (3): 135-57; also
  • Levidow L & Carr S, 'UK: disputing boundaries of biotechnology regulation'; 23 (3):164-70; in special issue on 'Biotechnology Risk Regulation in Europe', 23 (3): 133-200.


  • Carr, S. (2003). New biotechnology, crop protection and sustainable development. In Pesticides: Problems, Improvements, Alternatives (Eds Frank den Hond, Peter Groenewegen, Nico M Van Straalen). Oxford: Blackwell Science.
  • Chataway J, Levidow L & Carr S, (2000) 'Genetic engineering of development? Myths and possibilities', in T.Allen and A.Thomas, eds, Poverty and Development into the 21st Century, pp. 469-484, Oxford University Press, in association with the Open University, Milton Keynes.
  • Carr S, Levidow L, (1997) 'Coping with environmental uncertainty by social learning: the case of agricultural biotechnology regulation in Europe', in Stowell et al., Systems for Sustainability, pp.27-31, New York: Plenum Press.
  • Levidow L, (2001) 'GM crops: what transboundary harmonization in Europe?', in J.Linnerooth-Bayer, R.Loefstedt and G.Sjoestedt, eds, Transboundary Risk Management, pp.59-90. London: Earthscan.
  • Levidow L and Carr S, (2000) 'Environmental precaution as learning: GM crops in the UK', in LEARN Group, eds, Cow Up a Tree: Learning and Knowing for Change in Agriculture: Case Studies from Industrialised Countries, pp.323-35. Versailles: INRA.
  • Levidow L & Carr S, (1999) 'Biotechnology regulation: de/politicizing scientific uncertainty?', in N. Ben Fairweather et al., eds, Environmental Futures, pp.153-68. London: Macmillan.
  • Levidow L & Carr S, (1999) 'Dilemmas of risk-assessment research for transgenic crops', in K.Ammann et al, eds, Methods for Risk Assessment of Transgenic Plants III. Ecological Risks and Prospects of Transgenic Plants, pp.213-6. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag.
  • Carr S and Levidow L, (1999) 'Negotiated science: the case of agricultural biotechnology regulation in Europe', in U.Collier, G.Orhan, M.Wissenburg, eds, European Discourses on Environmental Policy, pp.159-72, Aldershot: Ashgate Publ.
  • Levidow L, (1997) 'Democracy and expertise: the case of biotechnology education', in Levinson R & Thomas J, eds, Science Today: Problem or Crisis?, pp.102-16, London: Routledge.
  • Levidow L, (1996) 'Simulating Mother Nature, industrializing agriculture', in G. Robertson et al.(BLOCK), eds, FutureNatural: Nature, Science, Culture, pp. 55-71, London: Routledge.


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